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Keyword Index for information technology and data rescue
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Below you can find our increasing keyword-dictionary with short descriptions for information technology and data rescue:

Keyword Index
Alphabetical listing and sorting of the data recovery keywords index
A head crash, also called "Click of Death", means the immediate contact of one or more read/write heads with the ferromagnetic platter surface(s) of a hard drive.
Read/Write Heads
Read/write heads are the tiny electromagnetic parts at the head of the mechanical swivel arm inside a hard disk drive.
The Apple File System (short APFS) is the successing file system of the HFS+ file system published in 1998.
Adaptive Parameters
The adaptive parameters of a hard disk are the values that are written into the firmware section of the respective data carrier for each individual during production.
BitLocker is Microsoft's own hard drive encryption: This requires a separate partition on the system drive to be encrypted, which can also be created automatically.
Btrfs (B-tree FS, also "Butter FS", "Better FS“) is a copy-on-write (COW) and B-tree file system for the Linux operating system.
An inode; Acronym for index node, refers to the fundamental data structure of the file systems of Unix-based operating systems and Linux derivatives.
The Copy-On-Write optimization process is currently found in the ZFS, Btrfs (Linux) and APFS (macOS) file systems and is an internal file system practice to avoid unnecessary copying and creation of further copies.
Magnetic disk
The magnetic disks or platter is part of the assembly of a hard disk and describes one or more rotatable, attached disk(s), which are mounted one above the other on a spindle.
Surface damages
Surface damage; Damage to the data carrier surface, partial surface damage or damage to the hard disk.
The acronym RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks and describes the combination of several physical data carriers (hard disk, solid state drives) into a single logical drive.
The acronym JBOD stands for Just a Bunch of Disks and refers to a collection of hard drives that are located in the same housing or on the same controller, but can be used or controlled independently of each other - unlike in the case of a RAID .
The URE rate is the average value that disk manufacturers provide for a disk model (not the individual disk).
A RAID 1 (mirroring) is the combination of at least two hard drives in the RAID in which all data is stored on all implemented hard drives.
Direct Attached Storage
Direct Attached Storage (DAS) describes data carriers (individual, RAID or JBOD) located in a separate, non-network-oriented housing that is connected to a single computer.
Network Attached Storage
Network attached storage systems; NAS for short, also network storage, are file servers to be managed without special knowledge and work independently and without a dedicated host computer or host server.
Storage Area Network
A storage area network (SAN) is the step-up of a Direct Attached Storage, in which the storage capacity in the network is allocated to a server.
RAID 0 offers no redundancy and, strictly speaking, cannot be counted among the Redundant Arrays of Indenpendet Disks (RAID).
With the principle of parity, a parity block is generated from the blocks of user data by XOR operations.
Hard disk drive
The hard disk drive (HDD) or hard disk (HD) is a magnetic data carrier that stores the data on the ferromagnetic surfaces of the rotating magnetic disks.
RAID 5 can be seen as a RAID 0 stripe set with continuous parity: The data is also written in strips over all data carriers involved, whereby one data block always contains the parity data.
The PCB (printed circuit board, circuit board or hard disk electronics) for hard disks is attached to the hard disk housing by means of screws and is neither glued nor soldered.
A bit (origin: binary digit "binary number" or "dual number") is the smallest possible electronic information unit in data processing and computer science.
CRC error
The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a verification method for the check value of data.
Defective hard disk sectors
Defective hard disk sectors can have various causes: For example, decreasing magnetization of the ferrite layer or partial damage to the data carrier surfaces by the read/write heads.
Hard disk drive sector
A sector (data block, block) is the smallest readable/writable unit of a hard disk.
Abbreviation from the file allocation table A FAT / FAT32 is an option for an operating system to keep an overview of the data stored on a data carrier.
Abbreviation from: Small Computer System Interface colloquially: ['ska: si] A widely used standard a title="Interface" href="/keywords/interface/">interface for the parallel connection of computer components.
A cluster denotes a group of smaller data units (e.g.
Data is changed by encryption in such a way that access is only possible with knowledge of a specific decryption (or decoding, decipherment).
The term is used in connection with a RAID 0.
An interface describes the communication transition between two components, regardless of whether hardware or software.
Abbreviation from: Basic Input Output System.
Compound term from "automatic parking" When the power supply is switched off, the read/write heads of a hard disk are automatically moved to a previously defined position in which data is never saved.
The VMFS file system (Virtual Machine File System) is a cluster file system that enables virtualization of storage in multiple installations of VMware ESX servers.
Virtual Machines
A so-called virtual machine (VM) refers to the software-based implementation of a simulated computer environment in which an operating system (OS) or various programs can be installed and executed.
A hypervisor (also: Virtual Machine Monitor) refers to software that maps the virtualization layer.
File system
File systems refer to the organizational storage management on a data carrier.
Logical Volume Manager
The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) describes a partition variant that is particularly common in the area of Unix and Linux derivatives.
Paravirtualization (IBM "DIAGNOSE code", Parallels "hypercall") refers to the provision of a software interface that is not identical to the exact hardware component; but has some similarities to it.
iSCSI is the abbreviation for the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) with the prefix "Internet"; iSCSI facilitates data transmission on the intranet (network).
SMR - Shingled Magnetic Recording
The word "shingle" refers to the roof shingles or their arrangement by roofers on a roof.
PMR - Perpendicular Recording
The PMR technology, also called "vertical recording", is primarily used in hard disk technology.
HAMR - Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording
As part of the constant increase in data density, hard drive manufacturer Seagate relies on HAMR technology ("heat-assisted magnetic recording").
Manucafturer: IBM
Legal form: CorporationIndustry: Information technologyYear founded: 1911 (June 16)Head office: Armonk (New York), United StatesRevenue: $ 79.9 billion
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